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Date et lieu de départMon Sep 05 00:00:00 CEST 2005
Date et lieu d'arrivéeThu Sep 15 00:00:00 CEST 2005
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Travaux effectués :
Guerao, Guillermo, Macpherson, Enrique, Samadi, Sarah, Richer de Forges, Bertrand, Boisselier, Marie-Catherine, 2006, First stage zoeal descriptions of five Galatheoidea species from Western Pacific (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura), Zootaxa, 1227, 1-29
Résumé [+] [-]The first zoeal stages of the galatheids Neonida grandis, Agononida squamosa and Munida javieri, and the chirostylids Eumunida annulosa and E. capillata are described and illustrated from laboratory-hatched material obtained from ovigerous females collected from south western Pacific. The morphologies of the first zoeae are compared with the same larval stage of other known anomuran species. The larval characters of Agononida squamosa and Neonida grandis are similar to those described for Agononida incerta. Munida javieri exhibits features not present in other described species of Munida such as the setation of the endopod of the maxillule and the antennal morphology. Eumunida annulosa and E. capillata do not show abbreviated development as in other described chirostylids such as Uroptychus and Gastroptychus, and its larval morphology is equivalent to the first stage of galatheid zoeae. However, many morphological characters of E umunida species are typically pagurid, such as the two terminal plumose setae of the antennal endopod, the three-segmented endopod of the maxillule, the posterior margin of the carapace without spines, and the scaphognathite with 5 plumose setae and without a posterior lobe.
Castro P., 2007, A reappraisal of the family Goneplacidae MacLeay, 1838 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura) and revision of the subfamily Goneplacinae, with the description of 10 new genera and 18 new species, Zoosystema, 29, 4, 609-774
Résumé [+] [-]A reappraisal of the taxonomy of the brachyuran crabs belonging to the family Goneplacidae MacLeay, 1838 sensu lato has resulted in the revision of the subfamily Goneplacinae, which combines the subfamilies Goneplacinae MacLeay, 1838 and Carcinoplacinae H. Milne Edwards, 1852. Most of the 66 species of Goneplacinae sensu stricto that are listed herein inhabit relatively deep water and are infrequently collected. The subfamily Goneplacinae sensu stricto now consists of 17 genera of which 10 are being described as new: Carcinoplax H. Milne Edwards, 1852, with 18 species of which four are new; Entricoplax n. gen., monotypic; Exopheticus n. gen., with two species; Goneplacoides n. gen., monotypic; Goneplax Leach, 1814, with four species; Hadroplax n. gen., monotypic; Menoplax n. gen., monotypic; Microgoneplax n. gen., with five species of which four are new; Neogoneplax n. gen., with three species of which two are new; Neommatocarcinus Takeda & Miyake, 1969, monotypic; Notonyx A. Milne-Edwards, 1873, with three species; Ommatocarcinus White, 1852, with four species; Paragoneplax n. gen., monotypic; Psopheticus Wood-Mason, 1892, with four species; Pycnoplax n. gen., with five species of which one is new; Singhaplax Serene & Soh, 1976, with seven species of which four are new; and Thyraplax n. gen., with five species of which three are new. All goneplacine genera are exclusive to the Indo-West Pacific region (plus contiguous temperate areas) except Goneplax, which is so far known mostly from the Atlantic and Mediterranean regions. Four nominal species described by other authors were found to be junior subjective synonyms for other species: Carcinoplax verdensis Rathbun, 1914 and C polita Guinot, 1989 synonymous of C specularis Rathbun, 1914; Goneplax megalops Komatsu & Takeda, 2003 of Goneplacoides marivenae (Komatsu & Takeda, 2003) n. comb.; and Psopheticus insolitus Guinot, 1990 of P stridulans Wood-Mason, 1892.
Kano, Yasunori, 2007, Vetigastropod phylogeny and a new concept of Seguenzioidea: independent evolution of copulatory organs in the deep-sea habitats: New concept of Seguenzioidea, Zoologica Scripta, 37, 1, 1-21
doi: 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2007.00316.x Résumé [+] [-]Bayesian and maximum-likelihood phylogenies of Vetigastropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda) were reconstructed by separate and combined analyses of one mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I, COI) and two nuclear (histone H3 and 18S rRNA) gene sequences, with an emphasis on dense taxonomic sampling. More than 70 vetigastropod species belonging to 13 families and 25 subfamilies constituted a robust clade against the two outgroup clades Neomphalina and Cocculinoidea. The phylogenetically controversial family Seguenziidae appeared as a derived Vetigastropoda and constituted a highly supported clade with eucycline and cataegine trochids, and three skeneimorphs (Adeuomphalus, Ventsia and Xyloskenea). These taxa herein treated as the superfamily Seguenzioidea are morphologically very diverse and grouped only by the combination of symplesiomorphies in the shell, radular and head-foot characters. Anatomical peculiarities of Seguenziidae, including the presence of the penis and seminal receptacle, are all apomorphic conditions independently derived from those in higher gastropod clades, as a consequence of the small size and in response to deep-sea habitats, where sperm storage seems to be especially beneficial with low numerical density of individuals and limited periodic cues for gametogenesis. Indeed, internal or semi-internal fertilization has been evolved at least six times in Vetigastropoda, essentially in deep-sea lineages, with weak phylogenetic constraints. Other new vetigastropod clades with high support values include: Turbinidae + Tegulinae (Trochidae) + Skeneidae s.s., Clypeosectidae + Lepetodrilidae, Anatominae (Scissurellidae) + Bathyxylophila (Skeneidae) and Lepetodriloidea + Scissurellidae + Bathyxylophila.
Macpherson, Enrique, 2007, Species of the genus Munidopsis Whiteaves, 1784 from the Indian and Pacific oceans and reestablishment of the genus Galacantha A. Milne-Edwards, 1880 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Galatheidae), Zootaxa, 1417, 1-135
Résumé [+] [-]Sixty-six species of the genus Munidopsis have been studied using specimens collected during numerous French expeditions carried out in the last decades in the deep-waters of the southwest Indian and southwest Pacific Oceans, between 140 and 4400 m. Twenty-five new species are described, and the diagnoses and illustrations of some relatively rare species (M. africana, M. debilis, M. lenzii, M. moresbyi, M. orcina, M. sinclairi, M. stylirostris and M. wardeni) are provided. The reestablishment of the genus Galacantha is proposed, including the descriptions/diagnoses and a key to all species. The genus contains nine species, including three new species (G. bellis, G. diomedeae, G. quiquei n. sp., G. rostrata, G. spinosa, G. subrostrata n. sp., G. subspinosa n. sp., G. trachynotus and G. valdiviae). The number of species collected by station is very small (usually one species), probably related to their low densities. However, in some samples, as many as five species have been found. The highest number of species have been observed in the Banda Sea (Indonesia) and Solomon Islands. The new records of some species greatly extend the previously known distribution range of the species.
Boxshall, Geoffrey A., Lin, Ching-Long, Ho, Ju-Shey, Ohtsuka, Susumu, Maran, Venmathi B. A., Justine, Jean-Lou, 2008, A revision of the family Dissonidae Kurtz, 1924 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida), Systematic Parasitology, 70, 2, 81-106
doi: 10.1007/s11230-008-9132-z Résumé [+] [-]Two new species of the parasitic copepod genus Dissonus Wilson, 1906 are described: D. excavatus n. sp. from the gills of a labrid, Bodianus perditio, and a lutjanid, Macolor niger, collected off New Caledonia and Taiwan, and D. inaequalis n. sp. from a hemiscylliid elasmobranch, Chiloscyllium punctatum, collected off Sarawak (Malaysia) and the Philippines. Material of D. heronensis Kabata, 1966 is described from a balistid host, Pseudobalistes fuscus, off New Caledonia, and this constitutes a new host record for this parasite. D. manteri Kabata, 1966 was collected from four serranid host species off New Caledonia and from one of the same hosts off Taiwan. Two of the hosts from New Caledonia, Plectropomus laevis and Epinephelus cyanopodus, represent new host records. D. pastinum Deets & Dojiri, 1990 was recognised as a new synonym of D. nudiventris Kabata, 1966, so the total number of valid species is now twelve. Material from museum collections of D. nudiventris, D. similis Kabata, 1966 and D. spinifer Wilson, 1906 was re-examined and provided new information which is utilised in a key to all valid species of Dissonus.
Lozouet, Pierre, Maestrati, Philippe, Héros, Virginie, Cowie, Robert H., Bouchet, Philippe, 2008, A quarter-century of deep-sea malacological exploration in the South and West Pacific: Where do we stand? How far to go?, Mémoires du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, 25, 196, 9-40
Résumé [+] [-]The Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD, formerly ORSTOM) and Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (MNHN) launched in the early 1980s a suite of oceanographic expeditions to sample the deep-water benthos of the tropical South and West Pacific, with emphasis on the 100-1,500 m bathymetric zone. This paper reviews the development of this programme to date. It describes the procedures involved in curating the material collected and the involvement of an international network of taxonomic experts to identify, describe and name the molluscan fauna. So far, 1,028 species of molluscs have been recorded from the New Caledonia Exclusive Economic Zone from depths below 100 m, and 601 of these (58.4%) were new species. An additional 142 new species have been described from other South Pacifi c island groups (Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Fiji, Wallis and Futuna, Tonga, Marquesas Islands and Austral Islands). However, the hyper-diverse families have essentially remained untouched. Regional differences among island groups are high, and New Caledonia, which has been sampled best, shows several discrete areas of micro-endemism. We speculate that the deep-sea mollusc fauna of New Caledonia may amount to 15-20,000 species, and the corresponding number for the whole South Pacifi c may be in the order of 20-30,000 species.
Puillandre, Nicolas, Samadi, Sarah, Boisselier-Dubayle, Marie-Catherine, Sysoev, Alexander, Kantor, Yuri I., Cruaud, C., Couloux, A, Bouchet, Philippe, 2008, Starting to unravel the toxoglossan knot: Molecular phylogeny of the “turrids” (Neogastropoda: Conoidea), Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 47, 3, 1122-1134
doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2007.11.007 Résumé [+] [-]The superfamily Conoidea is one of the most speciose groups of marine mollusks, with estimates of about 340 recent valid genera and subgenera, and 4000 named living species. Previous classifications were based on shell and anatomical characters, and clades and phylogenetic relationships are far from well assessed. Based on a dataset of ca. 100 terminal taxa belonging to 57 genera, information provided by fragments of one mitochondrial (COI) and three nuclear (28S, 18S and H3) genes is used to infer the first molecular phylogeny of this group. Analyses are performed on each gene independently as well as for a data matrix where all genes are concatenated, using Maximum Likelihood, Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian approaches. Several well-supported clades are defined and are only partly identifiable to currently recognized families and subfamilies. The nested sampling used in our study allows a discussion of the classification at various taxonomical levels, and several genera, subfamilies and families are found polyphyletic.
- Ahyong, Shane T., Ng, Peter K.L., 2009, The Cymonomidae of the Philippines (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura), with descriptions of four new species, The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, suppl. 20, 233-246
- Becker, Pierre T., Samadi, Sarah, Zbinden, Magali, Hoyoux, Caroline, Compère, Philippe, De Ridder, Chantal, 2009, First insignts into the gut microflora associated with an echinoid from falls environments, Cahiers de Biologie marine, 50, 343-352
Castro, Peter, Ng, Peter K.L., Naruse, Tohru, 2009, A new genus and new Species of Ethusidae (Decapoda, Brachyura) from Vanuatu, Western Pacific, Crustaceana, 82, 7, 931-938
Holford, Mandë, Puillandre, Nicolas, Terryn, Yves, Cruaud, Corinne, Olivera, Baldomero, Bouchet, Philippe, 2009, Evolution of the Toxoglossa Venom Apparatus as Inferred by Molecular Phylogeny of the Terebridae, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 26, 1, 15-25
doi: 10.1093/molbev/msn211 Résumé [+] [-]Toxoglossate marine gastropods, traditionally assigned to the families Conidae, Terebridae, and Turridae, are one of the most populous animal groups that use venom to capture their prey. These marine animals are generally characterized by a venom apparatus that consists of a muscular venom bulb and a tubular venom gland. The toxoglossan radula, often compared with a hypodermic needle for its use as a conduit to inject toxins into prey, is considered a major anatomical breakthrough that assisted in the successful initial radiation of these animals in the Cretaceous and early Tertiary. The pharmacological success of toxins from cone snails has made this group a star among biochemists and neuroscientists, but very little is known about toxins from the other Toxoglossa, and the phylogeny of these families is largely in doubt. Here we report the first molecular phylogeny for the Terebridae and use the results to infer the evolution of the venom apparatus for this group. Our findings indicate that most of the genera of terebrids are polyphyletic, and one species ("Terebra" (s.l.) jungi) is the sister group to all other terebrids. Molecular analyses combined with mapping of venom apparatus morphology indicate that the Terebridae have lost the venom apparatus at least twice during their evolution. Species in the genera Terebra and Hastula have the typical venom apparatus found in most toxoglossate gastropods, but all other terebrid species do not. For venomous organisms, the dual analysis of molecular phylogeny and toxin function is an instructive combination for unraveling the larger questions of phylogeny and speciation. The results presented here suggest a paradigm shift in the current understanding of terebrid evolution, while presenting a road map for discovering novel terebrid toxins, a largely unexplored resource for biomedical research and potential therapeutic drug development.
Hoyoux, Caroline, Zbinden, Magali, Samadi, Sarah, Gaill, Françoise, Compère, Philippe, 2009, Wood-based diet and gut microflora of a galatheid crab associated with Pacific deep-sea wood falls, Marine Biology, 156, 12, 2421-2439
doi: 10.1007/s00227-009-1266-2 Résumé [+] [-]Wood falls in the deep sea have recently become the focus of studies showing their importance as nutrients on the deep-sea floor. In such environments, Crustaceans constitute numerically the second-largest group after Mollusks. Many questions have arisen regarding their trophic role therein. A careful examination of the feeding appendages, gut contents, and gut lining of Munidopsis andamanica caught with wood falls revealed this species as a truly original detritivorous species using wood and the biofilm covering it as two main food sources. Comparing individuals from other geographic areas from substrates not reported highlights the galatheid crab as specialist of refractory substrates, especially vegetal remains. M. andamanica also exhibits a resident gut microflora consisting of bacteria and fungi possibly involved in the digestion of wood fragments. The results suggest that Crustaceans could be full-fledged actors in the food chains of sunken-wood ecosystems and that feeding habits of some squat lobsters could be different than scavenging.
Kano, Yasunori, Chiryu, Eri, Warén, Anders, 2009, Morphological, ecological and molecular characterization of the enigmatic planispiral snail genus Adeuomphalus (Vetigastropoda: Seguenzioidea), Journal of Molluscan Studies, 75, 4, 397-418
doi: 10.1093/mollus/eyp037 Résumé [+] [-]Adeuomphalus Seguenza, 1876 is a little known genus among the skeneimorph vetigastropods, with very few specimens previously reported alive from the deep sea. We examined newly collected and museum-stored specimens from upper to lower bathyal depths in the Atlantic, Mediterranean, Pacific and Indian Oceans and recognize seven recent species in the genus: A. ammoniformis Seguenza, 1876, A. densicostatus (Jeffreys, 1884), A. trochanter Waren & Bouchet, 2001, A. sinuosus (Sykes, 1925) n. comb., A. guillei n. sp., A. elegans n. sp. and A. collinsi n. sp., along with a fossil species, A. bandeli (Schroder, 1995) from the Lower Cretaceous, Poland. These species are characterized by a minute and colourless shell with almost perfectly planispiral whorls, an orthocline aperture, distinct radial ribs and a deeply concave apex and base. At least three species are confirmed to be radula-less, while A. guillei n. sp. has a simplified (3 2 1 2 3) rhipidoglossate radula. Anatomical investigations of A. collinsi n. sp. and A. trochanter revealed the following traits: a monopectinate ctenidium, blunt and tapering cephalic tentacles with sensory papillae, a cylindrical snout, a simple right neck lobe, a large foot with the anterior corners drawn out into finger-like projections, a smooth ESO-tentacle and a single, micropapillate epipodial tentacle on each side of the foot; absence of pigmented eyes, eye lobes, cephalic lappets and subocular peduncles. Three species collected by submersibles in the vicinity of hydrothermal vents co-occurred with carnivorous sponges of the family Cladorhizidae; a parasitic mode of life is suggested based on the lack of the radula and the peculiar, tube-like shape of the snout. Separate and combined phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial (COI and 16S rRNA) and nuclear (histone H3 and 18S rRNA) gene sequences revealed six monophyletic groups in Seguenzioidea: Seguenziidae, Chilodontidae, Calliotropidae, Cataegidae, Spinicalliotropis and skeneimorph seguenzioids. Three included skeneimorphs (A. elegans n. sp., Xyloskenea sp. and Ventsia tricarinata) were ambiguously grouped together with long branches and low statistical supports, possibly suggesting a vast, undiscovered phylogenetic diversity of the group. Taxonomic composition, morphological characteristics and evolutionary history are discussed for the skeneimorphs and five other groups in the superfamily.
Macpherson, Enrique, 2009, New species of squat lobsters of the genera Munida and Raymunida (Crustacea, Decapoda, Galatheidae) from Vanuatu and New Caledonia, Zoosystema, 31, 3, 431–451
Résumé [+] [-]Seven new species of the genera Munida Leach, 1820 (M. acola n. sp., M. clevai n. sp., M. jubata n. sp., M. mica n. sp., M. pauxilla n. sp. and M. squarrosa n. sp.) and Raymunida Macpherson & Machordom, 2000 (R. vittata n. sp.) are described and illustrated from specimens collected during recent cruises carried out off Vanuatu. Munida acola n. sp. has the second abdominal somite unarmed, distal spines of the antennular peduncle unequal in size, and the P2-P4 dactyli with spines along the entire ventral border. Munida clevai n. sp. has small eyes, and spines on the anterior ridge of second abdominal somite. Munida jubata n. sp. is characterized by the presence of spines on the second abdominal somite, and unequally sized distal spines of antennular peduncle. Munida mica n. sp. and M. pauxilla n. sp. have the frontal margin oblique, abdominal somites Unarmed, and distal spines of antennular peduncle of different size. Munida squarrosa n. sp. has the second abdominal segment with spines, and the distal half of the ventral border of P2-P4 dactyli unarmed. Raymunida vittata n. sp. belongs to a group of species having the mesial spine of first antennal segment not reaching the end of the basal segment of antennular peduncle, and mero-carpal articulation of P4 nearly reaching the frontal margin of the carapace.
Puillandre, Nicolas, Baylac, Michel, Boisselier-Dubayle, Marie-Catherine, Cruaud, Corinne, Samadi, Sarah, 2009, An integrative approach to species delimitation in Benthomangelia (Mollusca: Conoidea), Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 96, 3, 696–708
Résumé [+] [-]DNA sequences are currently used to propose primary hypotheses of species delimitation, especially when morphological variability is difficult to assess. In an integrative taxonomy framework, these hypotheses are then compared with other characters, such as morphology or geography, to produce robust species delimitations. For this purpose, the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene has been sequenced for almost 50 specimens of the genus Benthomangelia, a deep-sea marine gastropod genus, collected in the South-West Pacific. Five genetic groups, displaying low and high genetic distances respectively within and between groups, were defined. COI hypotheses were compared with both the results obtained with the independent nuclear 28S gene and with an elliptic Fourier analysis of the shape of the last whorl of the shell. 28S gene analysis confirmed the same well-supported groups as COI, and elliptic Fourier analysis identified several morphological characters that vary similarly to genetic variability. (C) 2009 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2009, 96, 696-708.
Puillandre, Nicolas, Samadi, Sarah, Boisselier-Dubayle, Marie-Catherine, Cruaud, Corinne, Bouchet, Philippe, 2009, Molecular data provide new insights on the phylogeny of the Conoidea (Neogastropoda), Nautilus, 123, 3, 202-210
Résumé [+] [-]The superfamily Conoidea is one of the most speciose groups of marine molluses, with almost 700 genera and 10,000 living species. Previous classifications were based on morphological and anatomical characters, but clades and phylogenetic relationships were not well assessed. Information provided by one mitochondrial (COI) and three nuclear (28S, 18S, and H3) genes were used to infer the phylogeny of this group. Data were obtained from more than 100 specimens, belonging to 54 genera, collected during recent cruises in the western Pacific (Philippines, Vanuatu, Norfolk Ridge, and Chesterfield and Solomon Islands). Analyses were performed on each gene independently as well as for a data matrix where all genes were concatenated, using several methods (ML, Parsimony, Bayesian). Some families and subfamilies among Conoidea correspond to well-supported clades uniformly recovered with all genes and all methods, but others appear to be polyphyletic. Several bathyal and abyssal genera are also shown to he polyphyletic. Our results also point out some new phylogenetic relationships at the family, subfamily, and genus levels.
Richer de Forges, Bertrand, Ng, Peter K.L., 2009, On the Majoid genera Oxypleurodon Miers, 1886, and Sphenocarcinus A. Milne-Edwards, 1875 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Epialtidae), with descriptions of two new genera and five new species, The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, suppl. 20, 247-266
Résumé [+] [-]On the basis of fresh collections from various parts of the western Pacific, three species of majoid crabs previously considered as rare are redescribed and figured: Oxypleurodon bidens (Sakai, 1969), O. auritum (Rathbun, 1916) and O. coralliophilum (Takeda, 1980). Four new species are described: O. boholense from the Philippines, O. barazeri and O. parallelum front the Solomon Islands, and O. alaini from New Caledonia. A new genus and new species, Stegopleurodon planirostrum, is described from New Caledonia and Vanuatu. The two species currently assigned to the allied American genus Sphenocarcinus A. Milne-Edwards, 1875, are re-examined, and a new genus, Rhinocarcinus. is established for the Pacific species Sphenocarcinus agassizi Rathbun, 1893.
Castro, Peter, Ng, Peter K.L., 2010, Revision of the family Euryplacidae Stimpson, 1871 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Goneplacoidea), Zootaxa, 2375, 1-130
Résumé [+] [-]The family Euryplacidae Stimpson, 1871, traditionally included in the Goneplacidae MacLeay, 1838, is revised based on the examination of the type material of many of its species as well as unidentified and previously identified material from around the world. The revised family now consists of 31 species (including five that are described as new) belonging to 13 genera (including four that are described as new): Eucrate De Haan, 1835, with eight species, of which one is new; Euryplax Stimpson, 1859, with two species; Frevillea A. Milne-Edwards, 1880, with three species; Henicoplax n. gen., with five species of which three are new; Heteroplax Stimpson, 1858, monotypic; Machaerus Leach, 1818, with two species; Nancyplax Lemaitre, Garcia-Gomez, von Sternberg & Campos, 2001, monotypic; Platyozius Borradaile, 1902, monotypic; Psopheticoides Sakai, 1969, monotypic; Systroplax n. gen., monotypic; Trissoplax n. gen., with two species, of which one is new; Trizocarcinus Rathbun, 1914, with two species; Villoplax n. gen., monotypic; and Xenocrate Ng & Castro, 2007, monotypic. The genus Platyozius and Eucrate formosensis Sakai, 1974, are removed from the synonymy of Eucrate and E. alcocki Serene, in Serene & Lohavanijaya, 1973, respectively. Neotypes are selected for Heteroplax dentata Stimpson, 1858, and Pilumnoplax sulcatifrons Stimpson, 1858, two species described from Hong Kong that have a confusing taxonomic history. A neotype is also selected for Euryplax nitida Stimpson, 1859, described from the Florida Keys. Seven nominal species described by other authors were found to be junior subjective synonyms for other species: Eucrate affinis Haswell, 1882, E. costata Yang & Sun 1979, E. haswelli Campbell 1969, and Pseudorhombila sulcatifrons var. australiensis Miers, 1884, of Trissoplax dentata (Stimpson, 1858); Galene laevimanus (Lucas, in Jacquinot & Lucas, 1853) of Eucrate dorsalis (White, 1849); Heteroplax nagasakiensis Sakai, 1934, of H. transversa Stimpson, 1858; and Pilumnoplax sulcatifrons Stimpson, 1858, of Eucrate crenata (De Haan, 1835). Eight euryplacid genera are exclusively found in the Indo-West Pacific region (except one species introduced in the Mediterranean), one is exclusive to each the Eastern Atlantic and Tropical Eastern Pacific regions, three to the Western Atlantic region, and one genus has both Western Atlantic and Tropical Eastern Pacific species.
Lorion, Julien, Buge, Barbara, Cruaud, Corinne, Samadi, Sarah, 2010, New insights into diversity and evolution of deep-sea Mytilidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia), Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 57, 1, 71-83
doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2010.05.027 Résumé [+] [-]Bathymodiolinae mussels have been used as a biological model to better understand the evolutionary origin of faunas associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Most studies to date, however, have sampled with a strong bias towards vent and seep species, mainly because of a lack of knowledge of closely related species from organic falls. Here we reassess the species diversity of deep-sea mussels using two genes and a large taxon sample from the South-Western Pacific. This new taxonomic framework serves as a basis for a phylogenetic investigation of their evolutionary history. We first highlight an unexpected allopatric pattern and suggest that mussels usually reported from organic falls are in fact poorly specialized with regard to their environment. This challenges the adaptive scenarios proposed to explain the diversification of the group. Second, we confirm that deep-sea mussels arose from organic falls and then colonized hydrothermal vents and cold seeps in multiple events. Overall, this study constitutes a new basis for further phylogenetic investigations and a global systematic revision of deep-sea mussels. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Macpherson, Enrique, Richer de Forges, Bertrand, Schnabel, Kareen, Samadi, Sarah, Boisselier, Marie-Catherine, Garcia-Rubies, Antoni, 2010, Biogeography of the deep-sea galatheid squat lobsters of the Pacific Ocean, Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 57, 2, 228-238
doi: 10.1016/j.dsr.2009.11.002 Résumé [+] [-]We analyzed the distribution patterns of the galatheid squat lobsters (Crustacea, Decapoda, Galatheidae) of the Pacific Ocean. We used the presence/absence data of 402 species along the continental slope and continental rise (200-2000 m) obtained from 54 cruises carried out in areas around the Philippines, Indonesia, Solomon, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna and French Polynesia. The total number of stations was ca. 3200. We also used published data from other expeditions carried out in the Pacific waters, and from an exhaustive search of ca. 600 papers on the taxonomy and biogeography of Pacific species. We studied the existence of biogeographic provinces using multivariate analyses, and present data on latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of species richness, rate of endemism and the relationship between body sizes with the size of the geographic ranges. Latitudinal species richness along the Western and Eastern Pacific exhibited an increase from higher latitudes towards the Equator. Longitudinal species richness decreased considerably from the Western to the Central Pacific. Size frequency distribution for body size was strongly shifted toward small sizes and endemic species were significantly smaller than non-endemics. This study concludes that a clear separation exists between the moderately poor galatheid fauna of the Eastern Pacific and the rich Western and Central Pacific faunas. Our results also show that the highest numbers of squat lobsters are found in the Coral Sea (Solomon-Vanuatu-New Caledonia islands) and Indo-Malay-Philippines archipelago (IMPA). The distribution of endemism along the Pacific Ocean indicates that there are several major centres of diversity, e.g. Coral Sea, IMPA, New Zealand and French Polynesia. The high proportion of endemism in these areas suggests that they have evolved independently. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Puillandre, Nicolas, Sysoev, Alexander V., Olivera, Baldomero M., Couloux, Arnaud, Bouchet, Philippe, 2010, Loss of planktotrophy and speciation: geographical fragmentation in the deep-water gastropod genus Bathytoma (Gastropoda, Conoidea) in the western Pacific, Systematics and Biodiversity, 8, 3, 371-394
doi: 10.1080/14772001003748709 Résumé [+] [-]Dispersal capabilities are crucial in how speciation patterns are determined in marine invertebrates. Species possessing a long-living planktonic larva apparently have a dispersal advantage over those with non-planktotrophic development, and their distant populations may exchange genetic material, maintaining a broad geographical range for the species. Recent species of the gastropod genus Bathytoma (Conoidea) are all characterized by non-planktotrophic development, having most probably lost a free-swimming larva in the pre-Pliocene, as Miocene fossils have protoconchs indicating planktotrophic larval development. All have a bathyal distribution (100–1500 m), which implies that their capability for direct expansion on the bottom is restricted by both deep-sea basins and shallow-water areas, especially in insular West and South-West Indo-Pacific. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that Bathytoma populations should represent numerous, mostly allopatric taxa restricted to a single or contiguous island groups. We tested this hypothesis using molecular and morphological characters independently. One hundred and thirty-eight specimens from the Philippines, Solomons, Vanuatu, and the Coral Sea were sequenced for one mitochondrial (COI) and one nuclear (ITS2) gene, and 14 operational molecular units were recognized. When these molecular units are overlaid over shell characters, 13 species (11 unnamed) and one form of uncertain status are recognized: three occur in the Philippines, six in the Solomons and one in New Caledonia. Broad distributions (inter-archipelagic) are uncommon (three species). On the whole, the phylogeographic pattern of the diversity in the genus is rather complex and probably also reflects processes of sympatric and fine-scale allopatric speciation, and local extinctions. The eleven new species are described and named.
Rowden, Ashley A., Schnabel, Kareen E., Schlacher, Thomas A., Macpherson, Enrique, Ahyong, Shane T., Richer de Forges, Bertrand, 2010, Squat lobster assemblages on seamounts differ from some, but not all, deep-sea habitats of comparable depth: Squat lobster assemblages of deep-sea habits, Marine Ecology, 31, 63-83
doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0485.2010.00374.x Résumé [+] [-]This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that benthic communities on seamounts are distinct from those of other deep-sea habitats at comparable depths. Analysis of the squat lobster fauna of deep-sea habitats in the Southwestern Pacific revealed that the species composition of assemblages on seamounts was not statistically dissimilar from assemblages on slope and plateau habitat at comparable depths. However, compositional differences were observed between seamount and rise and ridge habitat. Differences in assemblage composition between seamount and ridge habitat were statistically significant for two of the four ridge systems examined. Assemblages on seamounts that were distinct from non-seamount ridge habitat were typically dominated by small-bodied species with an abbreviated larval stage. Various environmental variables were correlated with the observed assemblage patterns observed; depth-related variables may account for differences between seamount and rise assemblages, whilst differences in POC flux likely play a role in determining the assemblage compositional patterns between seamount and non-seamount ridge habitat. Extensive pre-analysis data treatment was required to ensure that multivariate analyses of assemblage data from seamount and non-seamount habitats were robust. Our results confirm the findings of recent studies that found no compositional differences in assemblages from seamount and slope habitats, and support the idea that dissimilarity between seamount assemblages on different ridge systems increases with geographic distance. Further research will be required before the generality of these findings can be confirmed.
- Samadi, Sarah, Laure, CORBARI, Lorion, Julien, Hourdez, Stéphanie, Haga, Takuma, Dupont, Joëlle, Boisselier, Marie-Catherine, Richer de Forges, Bertrand, 2010, Biodiversity of deep-sea organismes associated with sunken-wood ot other organic remains sampled in the tropical Indo-pacific, Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 51, 459-466
Sigwart, Julia D., Schwabe, Enrico, Saito, Hiroshi, Samadi, Sarah, Giribet, Gonzalo, 2010, Evolution in the deep sea: a combined analysis of the earliest diverging living chitons (Mollusca : Polyplacophora : Lepidopleurida), Invertebrate Systematics, 24, 560-572
Résumé [+] [-]Lepidopleurida is the earliest diverged group of living polyplacophoran molluscs. They are found predominantly in the deep sea, including sunken wood, cold seeps, other abyssal habitats, and a few species are found in shallow water. The group is morphologically identified by anatomical features of their gills, sensory aesthetes, and gametes. Their shell features closely resemble the oldest fossils that can be identified as modern polyplacophorans. We present the first molecular phylogenetic study of this group, and also the first combined phylogenetic analysis for any chiton, including three gene regions and 69 morphological characters. The results show that Lepidopleurida is unambiguously monophyletic, and the nine genera fall into five distinct clades, which partly support the current view of polyplacophoran taxonomy. The genus Hanleyella Sirenko, 1973 is included in the family Protochitonidae, and Ferreiraellidae constitutes another distinct clade. The large cosmopolitan genus Leptochiton Gray, 1847 is not monophyletic; Leptochiton and Leptochitonidae sensu stricto are restricted to North Atlantic and Mediterranean taxa. Leptochitonidae s. str. is sister to Protochitonidae. The results also suggest two separate clades independently inhabiting sunken wood substrates in the south-west Pacific. Antarctic and other chemosynthetic-dwelling species may be derived from wood-living species. Substantial taxonomic revision remains to be done to resolve lepidopleuran classification, but the phylogeny presented here is a dramatic step forward in clarifying the relationships within this interesting group.
- Tavares, Marco, Cleva, Régis, 2010, Trichopeltariidae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura), a new family and superfamily of eubrachyuran crabs with description of one new genus and five new species, Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (São Paulo), 50, 9, 97-157
Williams, Suzanne T., Donald, K.M., Spencer, H.G., Nakano, Tomoyuki, 2010, Molecular systematics of the marine gastropod families Trochidae and Calliostomatidae (Mollusca: Superfamily Trochoidea), Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 54, 3, 783-809
doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2009.11.008 Résumé [+] [-]This study is the most extensive molecular study of the gastropod families Trochidae and Calliostomatidae published to date, in terms of both numbers of taxa and of gene sequences. As a result of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of molecular sequence data from one nuclear gene and three mitochondrial genes, we propose dramatic changes to Trochidae family systematics, present the first molecular phylogeny for Calliostomatidae and include the first published sequence data for the enigmatic subfamily Thysanodontinae. Our phylogeny demonstrates that within the family Trochidae there is strong support for three subfamilies new to traditional classifications: Alcyninae subfam. nov., Fossarininae and Chrysostomatinae subfam. nov. As proposed, Alcyninae consists only of the nominotypical genus Alcyna, which is sister to all other trochids. The subfamily Fossarininae, as defined here, includes Fossarina, Broderipia, Synaptocochlea and ‘‘Roya” eximia and probably also Clydonochilus and Minopa. The subfamily Chrysostomatinae comprises the genera Chrysostoma and Chlorodiloma. Additional molecular support is also obtained for recently redefined Trochinae, Monodontinae, and Cantharidinae and for the traditionally recognised subfamilies Umboniinae and Stomatellinae. The subfamily Lirulariinae is not supported by the molecular data, but rather is incorporated into Umboniinae. We also demonstrate that the current concept of the subfamily Margaritinae (previously a trochid subfamily, but recently and provisionally assigned to Turbinidae) is not monophyletic. We provide preliminary evidence that whereas Margarella rosea (previously a member of Margaritinae) belongs in the trochid subfamily Cantharidinae, its presumptive congener M. antarctica is not a trochid, but instead clusters with the thysanodontine genus Carinastele. Based on the phylogenetic placement of C. kristelleae, we agree with previous proposals based on morphological data that Thysanodontinae are more closely related to Calliostomatidae than Trochidae. Both Calliostoma and Carinastele are carnivorous and if a sister relationship can be confirmed between Carinastele and Margarella antarctica it might mean that carnivory evolved twice in Trochoidea. The direction of dietary changes was not investigated in this study, but mapping diet onto the phylogeny suggests that true herbivory is predominantly a derived character. The new classification system also means that five trochid subfamilies are predominantly associated with hard substrata, one with soft substrata (Umboniinae) and two with algae and seagrass (Alcyninae and Cantharidinae). There has been a shift back to hard substrata in one umboniine clade. Two of three clades within Calliostomatidae were predominantly associated with hard substrata, but one Japanese clade is associated with sand. The finding of three new, unidentified species from very deep water means that Trochidae, like Calliostomatidae, now includes species found at bathyal depths. More deep-water species may be found as increased sampling leads to the discovery of new species.
Zbinden, Magali, Pailleret, Marie, Ravaux, Juliette, Gaudron, Sylvie M., Hoyoux, Caroline, Lambourdière, Josie, Warén, Anders, Lorion, Julien, Halary, Sébastien, Duperron, Sébastien, 2010, Bacterial communities associated with the wood-feeding gastropod Pectinodonta sp. (Patellogastropoda, Mollusca): Bacteria associated with a wood-feeding gastropod, FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 74, 2, 450-463
doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2010.00959.x Résumé [+] [-]Even though their occurrence was reported a long time ago, sunken wood ecosystems at the deep-sea floor have only recently received specific attention. Accumulations of wood fragments in the deep sea create niches for a diverse fauna, but the significance of the wood itself as a food source remains to be evaluated. Pectinodonta sp. is a patellogastropod that exclusively occurs on woody substrates, where individuals excavate deep depressions, and is thus a potential candidate for a wood-eating lifestyle. Several approaches were used on Pectinodonta sampled close to Tongoa island (Vanuatu) to investigate its dietary habits. Host carbon is most likely derived from the wood material based on stable isotopes analyses, and high cellulase activity was measured in the digestive mass. Electron microscopy and FISH revealed the occurrence of two distinct and dense bacterial communities, in the digestive gland and on the gill. Gland-associated 16S rRNA gene bacterial phylotypes, confirmed by in situ hybridization, included members of three divisions (Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes), and were moderately related (90-96% sequence identity) to polymer-degrading and denitrifying bacteria. Gill-associated phylotypes included representatives of the Delta- and Epsilonproteobacteria. The possible involvement of these two bacterial communities in wood utilization by Pectinodonta sp. is discussed.
Bamber, Roger N., 2011, The male of Ascorhynchus constrictus Stock, 1997 (Arthropoda: Pycnogonida), with further new records of deep-sea pycnogonids from New Caledonia, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, Zootaxa, 2787, 55-67
Résumé [+] [-]Deep-sea pycnogonid material collected during the N/O Alis Campagnes Norfolk 2 to New Caledonia in 2003 and Salomon 2 to the Solomon Islands in 2004, together with two samples from the BOA0 and BOA1 Campagnes to Vanuatu in 2004-2005, has been analyzed. This includes only the second collection of deep-sea pycnogonids from the Solomon Islands. The material includes 22 specimens from seven species from New Caledonia, taken at depths from 265 to 1150 m, 95 specimens from 14 species from the Solomon islands, at depths from 336 to 1218 m, and two specimens of one species from Vanuatu (864-927 m depth). The first male of Ascorhynchus constrictus is described, including the first description of the anterior legs. A new species of Ascorhynchus is partially described, but not named owing to its incompleteness. Seven of the species are new to the Melanesia region, including a notable range-extension for Colossendeis tasmanica. The local zoogeography of these deep-water species is discussed.
Bouchet, Philippe, Kantor, Yuri I., Sysoev, Alexander V., Puillandre, Nicolas, 2011, A new operational classification of the Conoidea (Gastropoda), Journal of Molluscan Studies, 77, 3, 273-308
doi: 10.1093/mollus/eyr017 Résumé [+] [-]A new genus-level classification of the Conoidea is presented, based on the molecular phylogeny of Puillandre et al. in the accompanying paper. Fifteen lineages are recognized and ranked as families to facilitate continuity in the treatment of the names Conidae (for 'cones') and Terebridae in their traditional usage. The hitherto polyphyletic 'Turridae' is now resolved as 13 monophyletic families, in which the 358 currently recognized genera and subgenera are placed, or tentatively allocated: Conorbidae (2 (sub) genera), Borsoniidae (34), Clathurellidae (21), Mitromorphidae (8), Mangeliidae (60), Raphitomidae (71), Cochlespiridae (9), Drilliidae (34), Pseudomelatomidae (=Crassispiridae) (59), Clavatulidae (14), Horaiclavidae new family (28), Turridae s. s. (16) and Strictispiridae (2). A diagnosis with description of the shell and radulae is provided for each of these families.
Fransen, Charles, Ng, Peter K.L., Hiller, ALEXANDRA, Werding, BERND, De Grave, Sammy, 2011, Redescription of Petrolisthes militaris (Heller, 1862), with description of a new species from the Indo-West Pacific (Decapoda, Porcellanidae), Studies on Malacostraca: Lipke Bijdeley Holthuis Memorial Volume, 315–331
Résumé [+] [-]Petrolisthes militaris (Heller, 1862) is redescribed on the basis ofmaterial from the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum—Naturalis, Leiden, and the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris. A different morphotype, consistently showing a different distributional and ecological range from that of P. militaris, is here described as P. holthuisi n. sp. Phylogenetic analyses of a dataset based on DNA sequences of a fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene from individuals representing the two forms support the separation of these into two species. While P. militaris has a wide distribution in the Indo-West Pacific including the Red Sea, the new species seems to be restricted to the western side of the Malayan Peninsula through the Malayan Archipelago, eastward to Vanuatu. In addition, Petrolisthes militaris has a broad bathymetric range from the intertidal to 600 m, while P. holthuisi n. sp. is limited to shallow water.
Komai Tomoyuki, 2011, Further records of deep-sea shrimps of the genus Glyphocrangon (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Glyphocrangonidae) from the southwestern Pacific, with descriptions of two new species., Species Diversity, 16, 113-135
Résumé [+] [-]ollections made during recent French expeditions to the Solomon Islands (SALOMON 1 and 2) and Vanuatu (BOA 0 and 1) yielded 10 species of the caridean genus Glyphocrangon A. Milne-Edwards, 1881, including two new to science: G. boa sp. nov. from Vanuatu and G. prostrata sp. nov. from the Solomon Islands. Affinities of these two new species are discussed. The following eight species are newly recorded from the Solomon Islands: G. confusa Komai, 2004, G. faxoni De Man, 1918, G. indonesiensis Komai, 2004, G. lineata Komai, 2004, G. megalophthalma De Man, 1918, G. proxima Komai, 2004, G. pugnax De Man, 1918 and G. similior Komai, 2004. Glyphocrangon demani Komai, 2006 and G. rudis Komai, 2006 are shown to represent the male and female, respectively, of the same species, and the latter name is given priority over the former.
Puillandre, Nicolas, Meyer, Christopher P., Bouchet, Philippe, Olivera, Baldomero M., 2011, Genetic divergence and geographical variation in the deep-water Conus orbignyi complex (Mollusca: Conoidea): Diversity in the Conus orbignyi complex, Zoologica Scripta, 40, 4, 350-363
doi: 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2011.00478.x Résumé [+] [-]The cone snails (family Conidae) are a hyperdiverse lineage of venomous gastropods. Two standard markers, COI and ITS2, were used to define six genetically divergent groups within a subclade of Conidae that includes Conus orbignyi; each of these was then evaluated based on their shell morphology. We conclude that three forms, previously regarded as subspecies of C. orbignyi are distinct species, now recognized as C. orbignyi, C. elokismenos and C. coriolisi. In addition, three additional species (C. pseudorbignyi, C. joliveti and C. comatosa) belong to this clade. Some of the proposed species (e. g. C. elokismenos) are possibly in turn complexes comprising multiple species. Groups such as Conidae illustrate the challenges generally faced in species delimitation in biodiverse lineages. In the case of C. orbignyi complex, they are not only definable, genetically divergent lineages, but also considerable geographical variation within each group. Our study suggests that an intensive analysis of multiple specimens within a single locality helps to minimize the confounding effects of geographical variation and can be a useful starting point for circumscribing different species within such a confusing complex.
Puillandre, Nicolas, Kantor, Yuri I., Sysoev, Alexander V., Couloux, Arnaud, Meyer, Christopher P., Rawlings, T., Todd, J. A., Bouchet, Philippe, 2011, The dragon tamed? A molecular phylogeny of the Conoidea (Gastropoda), Journal of Molluscan Studies, 77, 3, 259-272
doi: 10.1093/mollus/eyr015 Résumé [+] [-]The superfamily Conoidea constitutes one of the most diverse and taxonomically challenging groups among marine molluscs. Classifications based on shell or radular characters are highly contradictory and disputed. Whereas the monophyly of the Conidae and Terebridae has not been challenged, the other constituents of the superfamily are placed in a 'trash' group, the turrids, the non-monophyly of which has been demonstrated by anatomical and molecular evidence. We present here a new molecular phylogeny based on a total of 102 conoidean genera (87 'turrids', 5 cones and 10 terebrids) and three mitochondrial genes [cytochrome oxidase I (COI), 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA]. The resulting tree recognizes 14 clades. When the Conidae (Conus s.l.) and Terebridae are ranked as families for consistency of usage, the 'turrids' must be split into 12 families of comparable rank. A new genus-level classification of the Conoidea is published in an accompanying paper.
Castelin, Magalie, Puillandre, Nicolas, Kantor, Yuri, Modica, Maria Vittoria, Terryn, Yves, Cruaud, Corinne, Bouchet, Philippe, Holford, Mandë, 2012, Macroevolution of venom apparatus innovations in auger snails (Gastropoda; Conoidea; Terebridae), Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 64, 1, 21-44
doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2012.03.001 Résumé [+] [-]The Terebridae are a diverse family of tropical and subtropical marine, gastropods that use a complex and modular venom apparatus to produce toxins that capture polychaete and enteropneust preys. The complexity of the terebrid venom apparatus suggests that venom apparatus development in the Terebridae could be linked to the diversification of the group and can be analyzed within a molecular phylogenetic scaffold to better understand terebrid evolution. Presented here is a molecular phylogeny of 89 terebrid species belonging to 12 of the 15 currently accepted genera, based on Bayesian inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses of amplicons of 3 mitochondrial (COI, 165 and 12S) and one nuclear (28S) genes. The evolution of the anatomy of the terebrid venom apparatus was assessed by mapping traits of six related characters: proboscis, venom gland, odontophore, accessory proboscis structure, radula, and salivary glands. A novel result concerning terebrid phylogeny was the discovery of a previously unrecognized lineage, which includes species of Euterebra and Duplicaria. The non-monophyly of most terebrid genera analyzed indicates that the current genus-level classification of the group is plagued with homoplasy and requires further taxonomic investigations. Foregut anatomy in the family Terebridae reveals an inordinate diversity of features that covers the range of variability within the entire superfamily Conoidea, and that hypodermic radulae have likely evolved independently on at least three occasions. These findings illustrate that terebrid venom apparatus evolution is not perfunctory, and involves independent and numerous changes of central features in the foregut anatomy. The multiple emergence of hypodermic marginal radular teeth in terebrids are presumably associated with variable functionalities, suggesting that terebrids have adapted to dietary changes that may have resulted from predator-prey relationships. The anatomical and phylogenetic results presented serve as a starting point to advance investigations about the role of predator-prey interactions in the diversification of the Terebridae and the impact on their peptide toxins, which are promising bioactive compounds for biomedical research and therapeutic drug development. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hoyoux, Caroline, Zbinden, Magali, Samadi, Sarah, Gaill, Françoise, Compère, Philippe, 2012, Diet and gut microorganisms of Munidopsis squat lobsters associated with natural woods and mesh-enclosed substrates in the deep South Pacific, Marine Biology Research, 8, 1, 28-47
doi: 10.1080/17451000.2011.605144 Résumé [+] [-]Squat lobsters of the deep-sea genus Munidopsis are among the most regularly reported crustaceans associated with deep-sea wood falls. They are often thought to indirectly use these substrates for preying or scavenging wood-associated molluscs or annelids, albeit the species M. andamanica has been recently highlighted as a xylophagous specialist. In this work, we examined the feeding appendages, gut contents and gut lining of M. nitida, M. bispinoculata and M. pilosa specimens from natural sunken woods and compared them with specimens of the same species having survived and grown on different hard-to-digest substrates (i.e. woods, turtle shells and whale bones) experimentally submerged in the deep South Pacific. In both cases, all three species directly ingest large wood fragments deeply degraded by microorganisms, but M. nitida also feeds on experimentally submerged whale bone and turtle shell fragments. Munidopsis nitida is also the only species to host a resident gut microflora, but the bacterial morphotypes vary according to the ingested substrate. The results suggest that the three species are most probably opportunistic, bacterivorous detritivores and that M. nitida could be at the beginning of an evolutionary process towards xylophagy within the genus Munidopsis.
Kantor, Yuri I., Puillandre, Nicolas, 2012, Evolution of the radular apparatus in Conoidea (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda) as inferred from a molecular phylogeny, Malacologia, 55, 1, 55–90
doi: 10.4002/040.055.0105 Résumé [+] [-]The anatomy and evolution of the radular apparatus in predatory marine gastropods of the superfamily Conoidea is reconstructed on the basis of a molecular phylogeny, based on three mitochondrial genes (COI, 12S and 16S) for 102 species. A unique feeding mechanism involving use of individual marginal radular teeth at the proboscis tip for stabbing and poisoning of prey is here assumed to appear at the earliest stages of evolution of the group. The initial major evolutionary event in Conoidea was the divergence to two main branches. One is characterized by mostly hypodermic marginal teeth and absence of an odontophore, while the other possesses a radula with primarily duplex marginal teeth, a strong subradular membrane and retains a fully functional odontophore. The radular types that have previously been considered most ancestral, “prototypic” for the group (flat marginal teeth; multicuspid lateral teeth of Drilliidae; solid recurved teeth of Pseudomelatoma and Duplicaria), were found to be derived conditions. Solid recurved teeth appeared twice, independently, in Conoidea – in Pseudomelatomidae and Terebridae. The Terebridae, the sister group of Turridae, are characterized by very high radular variability, and the transformation of the marginal radular teeth within this single clade repeats the evolution of the radular apparatus across the entire Conoidea.
Komai Tomoyuki, 2012, A review of the western Pacific species of the crangonid genus Metacrangon Zarenkov, 1965 (Decapoda: Caridea), with descriptions of seven new species, Zootaxa, 3468, 1-77
Résumé [+] [-]A review of species of the crangonid genus Metacrangon Zarenkov, 1965 (Decapoda: Caridea) from the Northwest and tropical Southwest Pacific Ocean is presented. Twenty-one species, including seven new to science, are recognized: M. asiaticus (Kobjakova, 1955) from the Kuril Islands and Komandor Islands; M. bythos n. sp. from Japan; M. clevai n. sp. from the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu; M. cornuta Komai & Komatsu, 2009 from Japan; M. holthuisi Komai, 2010 from Japan; M. karubar n. sp. from Indonesia to Solomon Islands; M. laevis (Yokoya, 1933) from northern Japan and the Russian Far East; M. longirostris (Yokoya, 1933) from Japan; M. miyakei Kim, 2005 from Japan; M. monodon (Birshtein & Vinogradov, 1951) from the North Kuril Islands; M. nipponensis (Yokoya, 1933) from Japan; M. obliqua n. sp. from Japan; M. ochotensis (Kobjakova, 1955) from the South Kuril Islands; M. proxima Kim, 2005 from Japan; M. punctata n. sp. from Indonesia, Solomon Islands and New Caledonia; M. robusta (Kobjakova, 1935) from the Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk; M. similis Komai, 1997 from Japan; M. sinensis Fujino & Miyake, 1970 from the northern part of the East China Sea; M. trigonorostris (Yokoya, 1933) from Japan; M. tropis n. sp. from Japan; and M. tsugaruensis n. sp. from Japan. These species are classified into two informal species groups. The new species are fully described and illustrated. Some previously known species, for which detailed descriptions along modern standards are deemed necessary, are redescribed. Metacrangon asiaticus is elevated from a subspecies of M. variabilis to full species status. A key to aid in the identification of the western Pacific species is provided. Bathymetrical and geographical distributions of the treated species are summarized. It is strongly suggested that each species is highly localized. The species richness is highest in waters around the Japanese Archipelago (17 of the 41 known species occur in the areas).
Puillandre, Nicolas, Modica, Maria-Victoria, Zhan, Y., Sirovich, L., Boisselier, Marie-Catherine, Cruaud, Corinne, Holford, Mandë, Samadi, Sarah, 2012, Large-scale species delimitation method for hyperdiverse groups: LARGE-SCALE SPECIES DELIMITATION, Molecular Ecology, 21, 11, 2671-2691
doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05559.x Résumé [+] [-]Accelerating the description of biodiversity is a major challenge as extinction rates increase. Integrative taxonomy combining molecular, morphological, ecological and geographical data is seen as the best route to reliably identify species. Classic molluscan taxonomic methodology proposes primary species hypotheses (PSHs) based on shell morphology. However, in hyperdiverse groups, such as the molluscan family Turridae, where most of the species remain unknown and for which homoplasy and plasticity of morphological characters is common, shell-based PSHs can be arduous. A four-pronged approach was employed to generate robust species hypotheses of a 1000 specimen South-West Pacific Turridae data set in which: (i) analysis of COI DNA Barcode gene is coupled with (ii) species delimitation tools GMYC (General Mixed Yule Coalescence Method) and ABGD (Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery) to propose PSHs that are then (iii) visualized using Klee diagrams and (iv) evaluated with additional evidence, such as nuclear gene rRNA 28S, morphological characters, geographical and bathymetrical distribution to determine conclusive secondary species hypotheses (SSHs). The integrative taxonomy approach applied identified 87 Turridae species, more than doubling the amount previously known in the Gemmula genus. In contrast to a predominantly shell-based morphological approach, which over the last 30 years proposed only 13 new species names for the Turridae genus Gemmula, the integrative approach described here identified 27 novel species hypotheses not linked to available species names in the literature. The formalized strategy applied here outlines an effective and reproducible protocol for large-scale species delimitation of hyperdiverse groups.
- Sigwart, Julia D., Sirenko, Boris I., 2012, Deep-sea chitons from sunken wood in the West Pacific (Mollusca: Polyplacophora: Lepidopleurida): taxonomy, distribution, and seven new species, Zootaxa, 3195, 1-38
Bonfitto, Antonio, Morassi, Mauro, 2013, New Indo-Pacific species of Rimosodaphnella Cossmann, 1916 (Gastropoda: Conoidea): a genus of probable Tethyan origin, Molluscan Research, 33, 4, 230-236
doi: 10.1080/13235818.2013.801332 Résumé [+] [-]The genus Rimosodaphnella Cossmann, 1916 was proposed for Murex textile Brocchi, 1814, a European Miocene– Pliocene species, and is sometimes thought to be represented in the recent fauna by three Atlantic species. Here, we assign only one Atlantic species, Pleurotoma (Drillia) morra Dall, 1881 distributed from North Carolina to Southern Brazil, to the genus and introduce three new species of Rimosodaphnella from the Indo-Pacific region. One, Rimosodaphnella solomonensis, n. sp. from the Solomon Islands, while two others, Rimosodaphnella tenuipurpurata n. sp. and Rimosodaphnella brunneolineata n. sp., from the Philippines Islands; these findings suggest that the genus may be well represented in the Indo-Pacific region.
Dijkstra, Henk H., Maestrati, Philippe, 2013, New species and new records of bathyal living Pectinoidea (Bivalvia: Propeamussiidae: Pectinidae) from the Southwest Pacific, Zoosystema, 35, 4, 469-478
doi: 10.5252/z2013n4a1 Résumé [+] [-]Nineteen species of Pectinoidea (16 Propeamussiidae, 3 Pectinidae) are herein listed. All species from the Solomon Islands (9 species), and New Caledonia (Norfolk Ridge , main island of New Caledonia , Grand Passage , Coral Sea ) are new records. Two Propeamussiidae species are new to science: Parvamussium orbiculatum n. sp. (Solomon Islands and Coral Sea) and Parvamussium perspicuum n. sp. (Vanuatu). One pectinid species from Vanuatu (Juxtamusium sp.) will be described later, when more material becomes available.
Haga, Takuma, Kase, Tomoki, 2013, Progenetic dwarf males in the deep-sea wood-boring genus Xylophaga (Bivalvia: Pholadoidea), Journal of Molluscan Studies, 79, 1, 90-94
Houart, Roland, 2013, The genus Daphnellopsis (Gastropoda: Muricidae) in the Recent and quaternary of the Indo-West Pacific province., Journal of Conchology, 41, 4, 465-480
Résumé [+] [-]The muricid genus Daphnellopsis Schepman 1913 is revised and maintained in the subfamily Ergalataxinae, waiting for eventual genetic studies. Six species are included, D. fimbriata (Hinds 1843), D. lamellosa Schepman 1913 (type species), D. hypselos Houart 1995 and three new species described herein: D. lozoueti n. sp.; and D. pinedai n. sp., both from the Quaternary (Upper Pleistocene) of Santo, Vanuatu, and D. lochi n. sp. A Recent species of Western Australia. All the species are described or re-described, illustrated and compared with each other, their geographical range is given and illustrated on a map. The protoconchs of five species are illustrated as well as some details of the shells. A jaw is pointed out for the first time in D. fimbriata and is illustrated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images.
Lemaitre, Rafael, Ahyong, Shane T., Chan, Tin-Yam, Corbari, Laure, Ng, Peter K.L., 2013, The genus Paragiopagurus Lemaitre, 1996 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura, Paguroidea, Parapaguridae): A worldwide review and summary, with descriptions of five new species, Mémoires du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, 27, 204, 311-421
Résumé [+] [-]A review of the deep-water hermit crab species of the genus Paragiopagurus Lemaitre, 1996 from the world oceans is presented. The core specimen base for this study has come primarily from the abundant collections of species of this genus obtained during French campaigns over the last four decades, and complemented with numerous specimens from many other deep-sea expeditions and deposited in various museum holdings around the world. Paragiopagurus is one of the most speciose genus among the Parapaguridae Smith, 1882, although it is considered a phylogenetically heterogeneous assemblage and does not appear to have an apomorphy of its own. Bathymetrically, the species range in depth from 36 to 2034 m, although they occur most frequently between 200 and 1000 m. The species utilize as housing, gastropod shells (or rarely scaphopod shells, siliceous sponges, or hollow pieces of wood) that may or may not be colonized by actinians or zoanthids. In this review, 24 species are recognized, of which five are new, P. laperousei n. sp., P. orthotenes n. sp., P. oxychelos n. sp., P. trilineatus n. sp., and P. umbonatus n. sp. The new species are fully described and illustrated. All previously known species of the genus are diagnosed or redescribed, and previously published illustrations of important taxonomic characters assembled and complemented, when useful, with new illustrations. The treatment of each species includes a full synonymy, materials examined (type and non-types), colouration, habitat or type of housing used, distribution, and remarks on taxonomy and morphological affinities. Colour photographs are included for 14 of the species. Parapagurus curvispina de Saint Laurent, 1974, a species tentatively moved after its description to Sympagurus Smith, 1883 and then to Paragiopagurus, is herein transferred with certainty to Oncopagurus Lemaitre, 1996. Parapagurus spinimanus Balss, 1911, a species that had been incorrectly placed in Paragiopagurus, is herein moved to Sympagurus. Parapagurus sculptochela Zarenkov, 1990, a taxon previously considered a junior synonym of Paragiopagurus boletifer (de Saint Laurent, 1972), is herein resurrected as a valid species of Paragiopagurus. The bathymetric and geographic distributions of Paragiopagurus species are summarized and briefly discussed, including a summary table, graph, and map with generalized distribution patterns.
Lorion, Julien, Kiel, Steffen, Faure, Baptiste, Kawato, Masuro, Ho, Simon Y.W, Marshall, Bruce A., Tsuchida, Shinji, Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi, Fujiwara, Yoshihiro, 2013, Adaptive radiation of chemosymbiotic deep-sea mussels, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 280, 1770, 20131243-20131243
doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.1243 Résumé [+] [-]Adaptive radiations present fascinating opportunities for studying the evolutionary process. Most cases come from isolated lakes or islands, where unoccupied ecological space is filled through novel adaptations. Here, we describe an unusual example of an adaptive radiation: symbiotic mussels that colonized island-like chemosynthetic environments such as hydrothermal vents, cold seeps and sunken organic substrates on the vast deep-sea floor. Our time-calibrated molecular phylogeny suggests that the group originated and acquired sulfur-oxidizing symbionts in the Late Cretaceous, possibly while inhabiting organic substrates and long before its major radiation in the Middle Eocene to Early Oligocene. The first appearance of intracellular and methanotrophic symbionts was detected only after this major radiation. Thus, contrary to expectations, the major radiation may have not been triggered by the evolution of novel types of symbioses. We hypothesize that environmental factors, such as increased habitat availability and/or increased dispersal capabilities, sparked the radiation. Intracellular and methanotrophic symbionts were acquired in several independent lineages and marked the onset of a secondwave of diversification at vents and seeps. Changes in habitat type resulted in adaptive trends in shell lengths (related to the availability of space and energy, and physiological trade-offs) and in the successive colonization of greater water depths.
Ma, Ka Yan, Chu, Ka Hou, Ahyong, Shane T., Chan, Tin‐Yam, Corbari, Laure, Ng, Peter K.L., 2013, The deep-sea spiny lobster genus Puerulus Ortmann, 1897 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palinuridae), with descriptions of five new species, Mémoires du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, 27, 204, 191-230
Résumé [+] [-]Recent French deep-sea expeditions in the Indo-West Pacific resulted in the collection of abundant material of the deep-sea lobster genus Puerulus Ortmann, 1897 (Palinuridae). Difficulties in identification necessitated a generic revision and as a result, five new species are described, all of which are similar to P. angulatus (Bate, 1888). Puerulus angulatus was thought to have a wide distribution from eastern Africa to Marquesas Islands, but is now restricted to the western Pacific, from Japan to Australia. Of the five new species, P. gibbosus n. sp. is found in eastern Africa, P. mesodontus n. sp. from Japan to Fiji, P. richeri n. sp. from the New Caledonia to Marquesas Islands, while P. sericus n. sp. and P. quadridentis n. sp. mainly occur around New Caledonia. Of the other three previously described species, the distribution of P. velutinus Holthuis, 1963, is extended to Fiji, while P. sewelli Ramadan, 1938, and P. carinatus Borradaile, 1910, are still only known from the northern and western parts of the Indian Ocean, respectively. COI gene sequence differences support the morphological species distinctions.
Richer de Forges, Bertrand, Ahyong, Shane T., Chan, Tin‐Yam, Corbari, Laure, Ng, Peter K.L., 2013, On a collection of spider crabs of the genera Rochinia A. Milne-Edwards, 1875 and Naxioides A. Milne-Edwards, 1865 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majoidea, Epialtidae) from Mozambique Channel, Solomon, Vanuatu and Philippine Islands, with description of a new species of Rochinia, Mémoires du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, 27, 204, 467-483
Résumé [+] [-]The study of a small collection of deep-water majoid crabs of the family Epialtidae brings some new data on the geographic distribution of species in the genus Rochinia A. Milne-Edwards, 1875 (R. pulchra (Miers, 1886), R. fultoni (Grant, 1905), R. aff. brevirostris (Doflein, 1904), R. aff. soela Griffin & Tranter, 1986, R. kotakae Takeda, 2001) and Naxioides taurus (Pocock, 1890). One new species, Rochinia boucheti n. sp., is described which differs from all congeners by the presence of numerous small tubercles on the carapace and its relatively short rostral spines. Males of R. kotakae are described for the first time.
Thubaut, Justine, Corbari, Laure, Gros, Olivier, Duperron, Sébastien, Couloux, Arnaud, Samadi, Sarah, 2013, Integrative Biology of Idas iwaotakii (Habe, 1958), a ‘Model Species’ Associated with Sunken Organic Substrates, PLoS ONE, 8, 7, e69680
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069680 Résumé [+] [-]The giant bathymodioline mussels from vents have been studied as models to understand the adaptation of organisms to deep-sea chemosynthetic environments. These mussels are closely related to minute mussels associated to organic remains decaying on the deep-sea floor. Whereas biological data accumulate for the giant mussels, the small mussels remain poorly studied. Despite this lack of data for species living on organic remains it has been hypothesized that during evolution, contrary to their relatives from vents or seeps, they did not acquire highly specialized biological features. We aim at testing this hypothesis by providing new biological data for species associated with organic falls. Within Bathymodiolinae a close phylogenetic relationship was revealed between the Bathymodiolus sensu stricto lineage (i.e. "thermophilus'' lineage) which includes exclusively vent and seep species, and a diversified lineage of small mussels, attributed to the genus Idas, that includes mostly species from organic falls. We selected Idas iwaotakii (Habe, 1958) from this latter lineage to analyse population structure and to document biological features. Mitochondrial and nuclear markers reveal a north-south genetic structure at an oceanic scale in the Western Pacific but no structure was revealed at a regional scale or as correlated with the kind of substrate or depth. The morphology of larval shells suggests substantial dispersal abilities. Nutritional features were assessed by examining bacterial diversity coupled by a microscopic analysis of the digestive tract. Molecular data demonstrated the presence of sulphur-oxidizing bacteria resembling those identified in other Bathymodiolinae. In contrast with most Bathymodiolus s.s. species the digestive tract of I. iwaotakii is not reduced. Combining data from literature with the present data shows that most of the important biological features are shared between Bathymodiolus s.s. species and its sister-lineage. However Bathymodiolus s.s. species are ecologically more restricted and also display a lower species richness than Idas species.
Williams, Suzanne T., Smith, L.M., Herbert, David Guy, Marshall, Bruce A., Warén, Anders, Kiel, Steffen, Dyal, Patricia, Linse, Katrin, Vilvens, Claude, Kano, Yasunori, 2013, Cenozoic climate change and diversification on the continental shelf and slope: evolution of gastropod diversity in the family Solariellidae (Trochoidea), Ecology and Evolution, 3, 4, 887-917
doi: 10.1002/ece3.513 Résumé [+] [-]Recent expeditions have revealed high levels of biodiversity in the tropical deep-sea, yet little is known about the age or origin of this biodiversity, and large-scale molecular studies are still few in number. In this study, we had access to the largest number of solariellid gastropods ever collected for molecular studies, including many rare and unusual taxa. We used a Bayesian chronogram of these deep-sea gastropods (1) to test the hypothesis that deep-water communities arose onshore, (2) to determine whether Antarctica acted as a source of diversity for deep-water communities elsewhere and (3) to determine how factors like global climate change have affected evolution on the continental slope. We show that although fossil data suggest that solariellid gastropods likely arose in a shallow, tropical environment, interpretation of the molecular data is equivocal with respect to the origin of the group. On the other hand, the molecular data clearly show that Antarctic species sampled represent a recent invasion, rather than a relictual ancestral lineage. We also show that an abrupt period of global warming during the Palaeocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) leaves no molecular record of change in diversification rate in solariellids and that the group radiated before the PETM. Conversely, there is a substantial, although not significant increase in the rate of diversification of a major clade approximately 33.7Mya, coinciding with a period of global cooling at the EoceneOligocene transition. Increased nutrients made available by contemporaneous changes to erosion, ocean circulation, tectonic events and upwelling may explain increased diversification, suggesting that food availability may have been a factor limiting exploitation of deep-sea habitats. Tectonic events that shaped diversification in reef-associated taxa and deep-water squat lobsters in central Indo-West Pacific were also probably important in the evolution of solariellids during the Oligo-Miocene.
Chan, Benny K.K., Corbari, Laure, Rodriguez Moreno, Paula A., Jones, Diana S., 2014, Two new deep-sea stalked barnacles, Arcoscalpellum epeeum sp. nov. and Gymnoscalpellum indopacificum sp. nov., from the Coral Sea, with descriptions of the penis in Gymnoscalpellum dwarf males, Zootaxa, 3866, 2, 261-276
doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3866.2.5 Résumé [+] [-]The present study describes a new species of Arcoscalpellum Hoek, 1907, and a new species of Gymnoscalpellum Newman & Ross, 1971, collected by deep-sea expeditions led by the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris) in the Coral Sea off New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea (PNG), the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Arcoscalpellum epeeum sp. Nov. Differs from all described species of Arcoscalpellum by the presence of a long, sharp, sword-shaped carina, which extends beyond the apices of the terga by 1/3 to 1/4 of their length. The species is dioecious, with large females and dwarf males that are sac-like, lack shell plates and are housed in paired receptacles at the inner edges of the scutal plates. Arcoscalpellum epeeum sp. Nov. Was collected in the waters of New Caledonia and Vanuatu. Gymnoscalpellum indopacificum sp. Nov. Differs from the six currently described species of Gymnoscalpellum by having a very small inframedian latus and a branched upper latus. The species is dioecious, with large females and dwarf males, the latter composed of 4 shell plates and housed in paired receptacles at the inner edges of the scutal plates. The penis of the dwarf males of G. indopacificum sp. Nov. Is about 0.8 of the total length of the male and has five side branches extending out along its length. Gymnoscalpellum indopacificum sp. Nov. Is distributed in the waters of Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, and represents the first record of this genus in the Indo-Pacific region.
Kool, Hugo H., Galindo, Lee Ann, 2014, Description and Molecular Characterization of Six New Species of Nassarius (Gastropoda, Nassariidae) from the Western Pacific Ocean, American Malacological Bulletin, 32, 2, 147-164
doi: 10.4003/006.032.0202 Résumé [+] [-]Six new species of the genus Nassarius Duméril, 1805 are described, based on material collected from the Coral Triangle and the South Pacific. We combine traditional morphology-based descriptions with the molecular (Cytochrome c oxidase I - COI) signature of the new species. New species are: Nassarius ocellatus sp. Nov. (Philippines to Vanuatu), Nassarius houbricki sp. Nov. (Solomon Islands to Queensland and Tonga), Nassarius radians sp. Nov. (Philippines to Vanuatu), Nassarius vanuatuensis sp. Nov. (Vanuatu), Nassarius velvetosus sp. Nov. (Western Australia to Fiji) and Nassarius martinezi sp. Nov. (Solomon Islands to Tonga).
Lemaitre, Rafael, 2014, A worldwide taxonomic and distributional synthesis of the genus Oncopagurus Lemaitre, 1996 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Parapaguridae), with descriptions of nine new species, The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 62, 210–301
Résumé [+] [-]A worldwide taxonomic and distributional synthesis of the deep-water hermit crab genus Oncopagurus Lemaitre, 1996 is presented. This genus, originally defined for 10 species is set apart from other Parapaguridae as well as other Paguroidea, by one synapomorphy: the presence of an upwardly curved epistomial spine. This study is based on a large amount of specimens deposited in major museums and collected during deep-sea sampling across the world oceans since the late 1800s, with the bulk of material coming from French campaigns in the Indo-Pacific, central and south Pacific during the last 40 years. A total of 24 species are recognised in this investigation, nine of which are new and fully described and illustrated. All previously known species are diagnosed or re-described, including figures assembled from recent published accounts or newly illustrated, of the most important morphological features useful for identifi cations. Information for each species includes a synonymy (full or abbreviated if a synonymy has recently been published), material examined (type and non-types), variations when signifi cant, colouration when available, habitat or type of housing used, distribution, and remarks on taxonomy and morphological affinities. Rare colour photographs are included for five species. Species of Oncopagurus range in depth from the Continental Shelf (50 m) to the Continental Rise (2308 m), although they are most commonly found in 50–500 m. Individuals of the majority of species in this genus are minute in size (< 3 mm in shield length), species differ in subtle morphological characters, and often exhibit the same broad morphological variations related to sex and size that has been documented in species of other genera of Parapaguridae. Oncopagurus mironovi Zhadan, 1997, a taxon reported from the Nazca and Sala-y-Gómez Ridges, is considered a junior synonym of the widely distributed O. indicus (Alcock, 1905). The bathymetric and geographic distributions of Oncopagurus species are summarised and briefly discussed, complemented with a summary table, graph, and map with generalised distribution patterns. The scant phylogenetic knowledge of this genus is summarised.
Puillandre, Nicolas, Bouchet, Philippe, Duda, T.F., Kauferstein, S., Kohn, A.J., Olivera, Baldomero M., Watkins, Maren, Meyer, C., 2014, Molecular phylogeny and evolution of the cone snails (Gastropoda, Conoidea), Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 78, 290-303
doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2014.05.023 Résumé [+] [-]We present a large-scale molecular phylogeny that includes 320 of the 761 recognized valid species of the cone snails (Conus), one of the most diverse groups of marine molluscs, based on three mitochondrial genes (COI, 16S rDNA and 12S rDNA). This is the first phylogeny of the taxon to employ concatenated sequences of several genes, and it includes more than twice as many species as the last published molecular phylogeny of the entire group nearly a decade ago. Most of the numerous molecular phylogenies published during the last 15 years are limited to rather small fractions of its species diversity. Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses are mostly congruent and confirm the presence of three previously reported highly divergent lineages among cone snails, and one identified here using molecular data. About 85% of the species cluster in the single Large Major Clade; the others are divided between the Small Major Clade (12%), the Conus californicus lineage (one species), and a newly defined clade (3%). We also define several subclades within the Large and Small major clades, but most of their relationships remain poorly supported. To illustrate the usefulness of molecular phylogenies in addressing specific evolutionary questions, we analyse the evolution of the diet, the biogeography and the toxins of cone snails. All cone snails whose feeding biology is known inject venom into large prey animals and swallow them whole. Predation on polychaete worms is inferred as the ancestral state, and diet shifts to molluscs and fishes occurred rarely. The ancestor of cone snails probably originated from the Indo-Pacific; rather few colonisations of other biogeographic provinces have probably occurred. A new classification of the Conidae, based on the molecular phylogeny, is published in an accompanying paper.
Puillandre, Nicolas, Stöcklin, Reto, Favreau, Philippe, Bianchi, Estelle, Perret, Frédéric, Rivasseau, Audrey, Limpalaër, Loïc, Monnier, Eric, Bouchet, Philippe, 2014, When everything converges: Integrative taxonomy with shell, DNA and venomic data reveals Conus conco, a new species of cone snails (Gastropoda: Conoidea), Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 80, 186-192
doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2014.06.024 Résumé [+] [-]Cone snails have long been studied both by taxonomists for the diversity of their shells and by biochemists for the potential therapeutic applications of their toxins. Phylogenetic approaches have revealed that different lineages of Conus evolved divergent venoms, a property that is exploited to enhance the discovery of new conotoxins, but is rarely used in taxonomy. Specimens belonging to the Indo-West Pacific Conus lividus species complex were analyzed using phenetic and phylogenetic methods based on shell morphology, COI and 28S rRNA gene sequences and venom mRNA expression and protein composition. All methods converged to reveal a new species, C. conco n. sp. (described in Supplementary data), restricted to the Marquesas Islands, where it diverged recently (_3 mya) from C. lividus. The geographical distribution of C. conco and C. lividus and their phylogenetic relationships suggest that the two species diverged in allopatry. Furthermore, the diversity of the transcript sequences and toxin molecular masses suggest that C. conco evolved unique toxins, presumably in response to new selective pressure, such as the availability of new preys and ecological niches. Furthermore, this new species evolved new transcripts giving rise to original toxin structures, probably each carrying specific biological activity.
Sigwart, Julia D., Summer-Rooney, Lauren H., Schwabe, Enrico, Heb, Martin, Brennan, Gerard P., 2014, A new sensory organ in “primitive” molluscs (Polyplacophora: Lepidopleurida), and its context in the nervous system of chitons, Frontiers in Zoology, 11, 7, 1-20
Résumé [+] [-]Introduction: Chitons (Polyplacophora) are molluscs considered to have a simple nervous system without cephalisation. The position of the class within Mollusca is the topic of extensive debate and neuroanatomical characters can provide new sources of phylogenetic data as well as insights into the fundamental biology of the organisms. We report a new discrete anterior sensory structure in chitons, occurring throughout Lepidopleurida, the order of living chitons that retains plesiomorphic characteristics. Results: The novel “Schwabe organ” is clearly visible on living animals as a pair of streaks of brown or purplish pigment on the roof of the pallial cavity, lateral to or partly covered by the mouth lappets. We describe the histology and ultrastructure of the anterior nervous system, including the Schwabe organ, in two lepidopleuran chitons using light and electron microscopy. The oesophageal nerve ring is greatly enlarged and displays ganglionic structure, with the neuropil surrounded by neural somata. The Schwabe organ is innervated by the lateral nerve cord, and dense bundles of nerve fibres running through the Schwabe organ epithelium are frequently surrounded by the pigment granules which characterise the organ. Basal cells projecting to the epithelial surface and cells bearing a large number of ciliary structures may be indicative of sensory function. The Schwabe organ is present in all genera within Lepidopleurida (and absent throughout Chitonida) and represents a novel anatomical synapomorphy of the clade. Conclusions: The Schwabe organ is a pigmented sensory organ, found on the ventral surface of deep-sea and shallow water chitons; although its anatomy is well understood, its function remains unknown. The anterior commissure of the chiton oesophagial nerve ring can be considered a brain. Our thorough review of the chiton central nervous system, and particularly the sensory organs of the pallial cavity, provides a context to interpret neuroanatomical homology and assess this new sense organ.
Vilvens, Claude, 2014, New species and new records of Calliostomatidae (Gastropoda: Trochoidea) from eastern and central Indo-Pacific, Novapex, 15, 2, 37-48
Résumé [+] [-]New records of live known Calliostomatidae species from eastern and central tropical Pacifie are listed, extending the distribution area of some of them. Four new species are described and compared with similar species: Calliostoma haapaiensis n. sp., C. vaubanoides n. sp., C. mesemorinon n. sp. And C. polysarkon n. sp.
- Fehse, Dirk, 2015, Contributions to the knowledge of Triviidae, XXIX-D. New Triviidae from Indonesia., Visaya, Supplement 5, 68-85
Macpherson, Enrique, Robainas-Barcia, Aymee, 2015, Species of the genus Galathea Fabricius, 1793 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Galatheidae) from the Indian and Pacific Oceans, with descriptions of 92 new species, Zootaxa, 3913, 1, 1-335
doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3913.1.1 Résumé [+] [-]The genus Galathea is one of the most speciose and unwieldy groups in the family Galatheidae. The examination of more than 9000 specimens of 144 species collected in the Indian and Pacific Oceans using morphological and molecular characters, has revealed the existence of 92 new species. The specimens examined during this study were obtained by various French expeditions supplemented by other collections from various sources, and including the type specimens of some previously described species. Most of the new species are distinguished by subtle but constant morphological differences, which are in agreement with molecular divergences of the mitochondrial markers COI and/or 16S rRNA. Here, we describe and illustrate the new species and redescribe some previously described species for which earlier accounts are not sufficiently detailed for modern standards. Furthermore we include a dichotomous identification key to all species in the genus from the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
Matsunuma, Mizuki, Motomura, Hiroyuki, 2015, Pterois paucispinula, a new species of lionfish (Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae) from the western Pacific Ocean, Ichthyological Research, 62, 3, 327-346
doi: 10.1007/s10228-014-0451-6 Résumé [+] [-]A new species of lionfish (Scorpaenidae: Pteroinae), Pterois paucispinula sp. nov., is described on the basis of 37 specimens from the western Pacific Ocean. The new species is closely related to and has been previously confused with Pterois mombasae (Smith 1957), both species sharing usually XIII, 10 dorsal-fin rays, usually more than 18 pectoral-fin rays, numerous black blotches on the pectoral-fin membrane, and several bands on the posterior portion of the pectoral-fin rays (free from membrane). However, P. paucispinula differs from similarly sized P. mombasae in having a lesser body depth at the anal-fin origin, head width, postorbital length, and caudalpeduncle depth, in addition to a slightly higher number of scale rows below the lateral line. Pterois paucispinula also differs from the typical form of P. mombasae, occurring off the east coast of Africa and in the central Indian Ocean and Andaman Sea, by having usually 18 pectoral-fin rays (vs. usually 19 in the latter) and relatively long dorsal-fin spines, with the longest dorsal-fin spine length 42.9–51.7 % of standard length (SL) (vs. 35.1–44.8 % of SL). Although a Sri Lankan population of P. mombasae is similar to P. paucispinula in the above characters (usually 18 pectoral-fin rays and longest dorsal-fin spine length 37.5–51.1 % of SL), such differences among P. mombasae are regarded as intra-specific geographical variations. Additionally, young and adult P. mombasae have ctenoid scales on the pectoral-fin base, ventrolateral portion of the body (below the lateral line) and laterally on the caudal peduncle. These regions in all examined P. paucispinula usually have only cycloid or at most a few ctenoid scales, thereby providing a consistent basis for identification of both species, including the Sri Lankan population of P. mombasae. Pterois mombasae is distributed in the Indian Ocean from the east coast of Africa to the Andaman Sea, whereas P. paucispinula is recorded from the western Pacific Ocean, from northern Australia to southern Japan and eastward to the Wallis and Futuna Islands.
Fraussen, Koen, Stahlschmidt, Peter, Héros, Virginie, Strong, Ellen E., Bouchet, Philippe, 2016, The extensive Indo-Pacific deep-water radiation of Manaria E. A. Smith, 1906 (Gastropoda: Buccinidae) and related genera, with descriptions of 21 new species, Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, 29, 208, 363-456
Résumé [+] [-]The tropical deep-water Cominellinae commonly assigned to the genera Manaria E. A. Smith, 1906 and Eosipho Thiele, 1929 are revised. While the taxonomic details at the generic level were discussed by Kantor et al. (2013), the species level is discussed here. Twentyone new species are described: Manaria astrolabis n. sp. (French Polynesia), M. borbonica n. sp. (Réunion), M. circumsonaxa n. sp. (Papua New Guinea and the Solomons), M. corindoni n. sp. (Indonesia), M. corporosis n. sp. (the Solomons, Vanuatu, Coral Sea and New Caledonia), M. explicibilis n. sp. (Papua New Guinea and the Solomons), M. excalibur n. sp. (Indonesia and Western Australia), M. fluentisona n. sp. (the Solomons, Fiji, Wallis and Tonga), M. hadorni n. sp. (Papua New Guinea and New Caledonia), M. indomaris n. sp. (India), M. loculosa n. sp. (Fiji), M. lozoueti n. sp. (North Fiji Basin), M. terryni n. sp. (Mozambique Channel), M. tongaensis n. sp. (Tonga), M. tyrotarichoides n. sp. (Mozambique Channel), Calagrassor bacciballus n. sp. (Philippines), C. delicatus n. sp. (New Zealand), C. hespericus n. sp. (Mozambique), C. pidginoides n. sp. (Philippines, Papua New Guinea, the Solomons and Vanuatu), Enigmaticolus marshalli n. sp. (Kermadec Ridge, Monowai Caldera), and E. voluptarius n. sp. (New Caledonia). Considerable range extensions are recorded: Manaria kuroharai Azuma, 1960 is recorded from the Solomons, New Caledonia, Vanuatu and Tonga; M. brevicaudata (Schepman, 1911) is recorded from Taiwan, the Philippines, the Solomons and Fiji; and Calagrassor poppei (Fraussen, 2001) is recorded from Indonesia and the Solomons. Lathyrus jonkeri Koperberg, 1931, a fossil described from Indonesia, is recorded from the Recent fauna of Indonesia, Philippines and Fiji and is redescribed and placed in Manaria. Sipho jonkeri Koperberg, 1931, another fossil described from Indonesia in the same work, is a secondary homonym of Manaria jonkeri (Koperberg, 1931) and is renamed Manaria koperbergae nom. nov.
- Marshall, Bruce A., Puillandre, Nicolas, Lambourdiere, Josie, Couloux, Arnaud, Samadi, Sarah, Héros, Virginie, Strong, Ellen E., Bouchet, Philippe, 2016, Deep-sea wood-eating limpets of the genus Pectinodonta Dall, 1882 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Patellogastropoda: Pectinodontidae) from the tropical West Pacific, Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, 29, 208, 235-265
Ng, Peter K.L., Castro, Peter, 2016, Revision of the family Chasmocarcinidae Serène, 1964 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Goneplacoidea), Zootaxa, 4209, 1, 1-182
- Sirenko, Boris I., Héros, Virginie, Strong, Ellen E., Bouchet, Philippe, 2016, New, rare bathyal leptochitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) from the South and West Pacific, Mémoires du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, 29, 208, 25-63
Sumner-Rooney, Lauren, Sigwart, Julia D., McAfee, Jenny, Smith, Lisa, Williams, Suzanne T., 2016, Repeated eye reduction events reveal multiple pathways to degeneration in a family of marine snails, Evolution, 70, 10, 2268-2295
doi: 10.1111/evo.13022 Résumé [+] [-]Eye reduction occurs in many troglobitic, fossorial, and deep-sea animals but there is no clear consensus on its evolutionary mechanism. Given the highly conserved and pleiotropic nature of many genes instrumental to eye development, degeneration might be expected to follow consistent evolutionary trajectories in closely related animals. We tested this in a comparative study of ocular anatomy in solariellid snails from deep and shallow marine habitats using morphological, histological, and tomographic techniques, contextualized phylogenetically. Of 67 species studied, 15 lack retinal pigmentation and at least seven have eyes enveloped by surrounding epithelium. Independent instances of reduction follow numerous different morphological trajectories. We estimate eye loss has evolved at least seven times within Solariellidae, in at least three different ways: characters such as pigmentation loss, obstruction of eye aperture, and “lens” degeneration can occur in any order. In one instance, two morphologically distinct reduction pathways appear within a single genus, Bathymophila. Even amongst closely related animals living at similar depths and presumably with similar selective pressures, the processes leading to eye loss have more evolutionary plasticity than previously realized. Although there is selective pressure driving eye reduction, it is clearly not morphologically or developmentally constrained as has been suggested by previous studies.
- Vilvens, Claude, Williams, Suzanne T., Héros, Virginie, Strong, Ellen E., Bouchet, Philippe, 2016, New genus and new species of Solariellidae (Gastropoda: Trochoidea) from New Caledonia, Fiji, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Philippines, Papua New Guinea and French Polynesia, Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, 29, 208, 267-289
Vilvens, Claude, 2016, New records and new species of Cataegis (Gastropoda: Seguenzioidea) from Solomon Islands, Novapex, 17, 4, 67-76
Résumé [+] [-]New records of one known Cataegidae species described from Indonesia area are listed, extending its distribution to Solomon Islands. Three new species are described from Solomon Islands and compared with similar species: Cataegis stroggile n. sp., C. tallorbioides n. sp. and C. pleres n. sp.
Fedesov, Alexander E., Puillandre, Nicolas, Herrmann, Manfred, Dgebuadze, Polina, Bouchet, Philippe, 2017, Phylogeny, systematics, and evolution of the family Costellariidae (Gastropoda: Neogastropoda), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 179, 3, 541-626
doi: 10.1111/zoj.12431 Résumé [+] [-]The neogastropod family Costellariidae is a large and successful group of carnivorous marine mollusks that encompasses about 475 living species. Costellariids are most diverse in the tropical Indo-Pacific at a depth interval of 0–200 m, where they are largely represented by numerous species commonly assigned to the genus Vexillum. The present work expands the taxon sampling of a previous phylogeny of the mitriform gastropods to resolve earlier problematic relationships, and thus establish a robust framework of the family, revise its taxonomy, and uncover major trends in the evolution of costellariid morphology. A multicuspidate rachidian is shown to have appeared at least twice in the evolutionary history of the family: it is regarded as an apomorphy of the primarily Indo-Pacific Vexillum–Austromitra–Atlantilux lineage, and has evolved independently in the Nodicostellaria–Mitromica lineage of the western hemisphere. The genera Ceratoxancus and Latiromitra are transferred from the Ptychatractidae to the Costellariidae. Tosapusia, Protoelongata, and Pusia are ranked as full genera, the latter with the three subgenera Pusia, Ebenomitra, and Vexillena. Vexillum (Costellaria) and Zierliana are treated as synonyms of Vexillum. The replacement name Suluspira is proposed for Visaya Poppe, Guillot de Suduiraut & Tagaro, 2006, non Ahyong, 2004 (Crustacea). We introduce four new genera, Alisimitra, Costapex, Turriplicifer, and Orphanopusia, and characterize their anatomy; 14 new species, mostly from deep water in the Indo-Pacific, are described in the genera Tosapusia, Alisimitra, Costapex, and Pusia. At least two species of Costapex gen. nov. have been collected from sunken wood.
- Fehse, Dirk, 2017, Contributions to the knowledge of the Triviidae, XXIX-K. New Triviidae from the Vanuatu, Visaya, Suppl. VIII, 95-124
- Oliver, Joan Daniel, Rolán, Emilio, 2017, A new species of the genus Benthonellania (Gastropoda, Rissooidea) from the Cape Verde archipelago - Una nueva especie del género Benthonellania (Gastropoda, Rissooidea) del archipiélago de Cabo Verde, Iberus, 35, 1, 47-57
Puillandre, Nicolas, Tenorio, Manuel J., 2017, A question of rank: DNA sequences and radula characters reveal a new genus of cone snails (Gastropoda: Conidae), Journal of Molluscan Studies, 83, 2, 200-210
- Vilvens, Claude, 2017, New species and new records of Chilodontidae (Gastropoda: Vetigastropoda: Seguenzioidea) from the Pacific Ocean, Novapex, 18, HS 11, 1-67
- Baba, Keiji, 2018, Chirostylidae of the Western and Central Pacific: Uroptychus and a new genus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura). Tropical Deep-Sea Benthos, Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, 30, 212
Liste des documents
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Liste des participants
- Amos, George
- Dupont, Joëlle (Mycologie, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle)
- Collecte - Tri
- Haga, Takuma (Malacologie, University of Tsukuba)
- Collecte - Tri
- Richer de Forges, Bertrand (Carcinologie - Benthologie, Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer)
- Collecte - Tri
- Rousseau, Florence (Algologie, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle)
- Collecte - Tri
- Samadi, Sarah (Biologie évolutive, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement)
- Chef de mission